The Vice President is the second-highest official in rank of the federal government. The office of the Vice President's duties and powers are established in the legislative branch of the federal government under Article 1, Section 3, Clauses 4 and 5 as the President of the Senate . By virtue of this on-going role, he or she is the head of the Senate. In that capacity, the Vice President is allowed to vote in the Senate, but only when necessary to break a tie vote . Pursuant to the Twelfth Amendment , the Vice President presides over the joint session of Congress when it convenes to count the vote of the Electoral College. As first in the . presidential line of succession , the Vice President duties and powers move to the executive branch when becoming President upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President, which has happened nine times in . history. Lastly, in the case of a Twenty-fifth Amendment succession event, Vice President would become Acting President, assuming all of the powers and duties of President, except being designated as President. Accordingly, by circumstances, the Constitution designates the Vice President as routinely in the legislative branch, or succeeding to the executive branch as President, or possibly being in both as Acting President pursuant to the Twenty-fifth Amendment . Because of circumstances, the overlapping nature of the duties and powers attributed to the office, the title of the office and other matters, such has generated a spirited scholarly dispute regarding attaching an exclusive branch designation to the office of Vice President.  
Known for its lively, clear prose as well as its scholarly research, A People’s History of the United States is the only volume to tell America’s story from the point of view of—and in the words of—America’s women, factory workers, African-Americans, Native Americans, the working poor, and immigrant laborers. As historian Howard Zinn shows, many of our country’s greatest battles—fights for fair wages, eight-hour workdays, child-labor laws, health and safety standards, universal suffrage, women’s rights, racial equality—were carried out at the grassroots level, against bloody resistance.