According to Connant (1898), aid donation is regarded as an incentive to progress too, while other scholars view it merely a means of creating Western dependency. However, generally, higher life expectancies along with income support were observed, especially in Japan, Western Europe, Australia and North America. Gradually the life expectancies proliferated. By 1820 and 1998, these States had higher income levels than the rest of world, seven to one, to express as a ratio. Presently, the ration is twenty to one between Africa and the United States. This gap continues to widen. The burgeoning Asian countries in the last few decades have realized that significant level of catch-up is achievable. However, since 1973, the world’s economic growth has slowed down substantially.
Wits is strategically located in Johannesburg, a world class city and the economic hub of South Africa, with countless opportunities for students and staff to engage with and present solutions that will contribute to our country's knowledge-base and build our future. With its more than 160 000 graduates in its 95-year history, Wits has made and will continue to make its mark nationally and internationally. Wits is positioned 24th by the Times Higher Education Rankings among the world top 100 universities from which Fortune 500 CEO's graduated.
Smith and Parkes, together and apart, wrote many articles on education and employment opportunities. In the same year as Norton, Smith summarized the legal framework for injustice in her 1854 A Brief Summary of the Laws of England concerning Women .  She was able to reach large numbers of women via her role in the English Women's Journal . The response to this journal led to their creation of the Society for Promoting the Employment of Women (SPEW). Smith's Married Women's Property committee collected 26,000 signatures to change the law [ clarification needed ] for all women, including those unmarried.