In June 1646 the King's wartime capital, Oxford, was surrendered to the Parliamentarian New Model Army. Charles fled in disguise and put himself under the protection of the Scots - but they soon handed him back to Parliament. Two years later the King was led out to the executioner's block, his attempts to recover his position by fomenting a new war - this time between the Scots and Parliament - having finally hardened his captors' hearts against him. On 30 January 1649 the King was beheaded in front of a huge crowd at Whitehall. 'The man Charles Stuart' was gone - but, thanks to the subsequent efforts of royalist propagandists, the memory of 'the martyr king' would live on in the English popular imagination for centuries to come.