Earthquakes: structure of earth, movement of plates, types of faults, P wave, S wave, surface waves, characterization of earthquakes and earthquake-induced ground motion; response spectra for individual ground motion records, site-specific response spectra, design spectra; single-degree-of-freedom systems; multi-degree-of-freedom systems; analysis, design and detailing of RC frames based on state-of-the-art and various codes IS 456, IS 1893 & IS 13920; Special topics: selection and scaling of ground motions, characterization of seismic hazard, seismic analysis and design of bridges, retaining walls, liquid-storage tanks, dams etc., design of non-structural components, passive structural control
The second approach to the management of leucoderma focuses on repigmentation therapies. Common therapies are of three types: The topical application of potent corticosteroids, (PUVA) psoralen photochemotherapy and surgical therapies. Of these interventions PUVA is considered the most effective treatment available in the United States, however the treatments are time-consuming, side effects can be severe, 4 and complete repigmentation only occurs in 15-20%. 5 Interestingly, psoralens used with photochemotherapy are obtained from the ancient Ayurvedic herb known as Vakuchi (psoralea corylifolia).