Various facilitation approaches have been adapted to the group decision making process with different advantages and disadvantages. Examples include the Nominal Group Technique, the Delphi method, Six Thinking Hats® (a parallel thinking process), and the stepladder technique. An important approach for avoiding groupthink captures minority positions, helping to avoid decision making biases, and potentially leading to a different way forward. In addition, many problem decomposition approaches and project management methods have been integrated with individual decision making techniques to address team decision making.
Delegated decisions are far narrower in scope than big-bet decisions or cross-cutting ones. They are frequent and relatively routine elements of day-to-day management, typically in areas such as hiring, marketing, and purchasing. The value at stake for delegated decisions is in the multiplier effect they can have because of the frequency of their occurrence across the organization. Placing the responsibility for these decisions in the hands of those closest to the work typically delivers faster, better, and more efficiently executed decisions, while also enhancing engagement and accountability at all levels of the organization.
Decision-making in groups is a fact of organizational life for many individuals. Because so many individuals spend at least some of their work time in decision-making groups, groups are the subjects of hundreds of research studies each year. Despite this, there is still much to learn about the development and functioning of groups. Research is likely to continue to focus on identifying processes that will make group decision-making more efficient and effective. It is also likely to examine how the internal characteristics of groups (demographic and cognitive diversity) and the external contingencies faced by groups affect their functioning.