President Lincoln had had concerns that the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 might be reversed or found invalid after the war. He saw constitutional amendment as a more permanent solution.   He had remained outwardly neutral on the amendment because he considered it politically too dangerous.  Nonetheless, Lincoln's 1864 party platform resolved to abolish slavery by constitutional amendment.   After winning reelection in the election of 1864 , Lincoln made the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment his top legislative priority, beginning with his efforts in Congress during its "lame duck" session.   Popular support for the amendment mounted and Lincoln urged Congress on in his December 6, 1864 State of the Union Address : "there is only a question of time as to when the proposed amendment will go to the States for their action. And as it is to so go, at all events, may we not agree that the sooner the better?" 
Nobody, though—not even Sheriff Gore—disputes Peruta’s competency to handle a firearm. A competitive shooter since age 9, he was a skilled marksman by the time he joined the military. Peruta was a Marine small arms instructor at the . Naval Academy, and had a brief career in law enforcement . Peruta is certified by the National Rifle Association to teach pistol safety, and he completed the eight-hour firearms course required by the state of California. His application wasn’t rejected because he was unfit to carry a firearm, but because he couldn’t articulate a compelling need to do so. (California requires that applicants demonstrate “good cause” for a concealed carry permit.)
[*] © Copyright Robert J. Cottrol and Raymond T. Diamond, 1991. This article was delivered as a paper at the 1990 annual meeting of the American Society for Legal History, at the Harvard Legal History Forum, at a faculty seminar at Northwestern University Law School, at the 1991 joint annual meeting of the Law and Society Association and the International Law and Society Association, and at the 1991 annual meeting of the American Political Science Association. The authors would like to acknowledge the helpful comments made in those forums. The authors would like to acknowledge the research assistance of Jan McNitt, Boston College Law School, 1991; Richard J. Fraher, Rutgers (Camden) School of Law, 1993; Roderick C. Sanchez, Rutgers (Camden) School of Law, 1992; Adrienne I. Logan, Tulane University School of Law, 1992; and Willie E. Shepard, Tulane University School of Law, 1992. This paper has benefitted from the criticism and helpful comments of Akhil R. Amar, Michael Les Benedict, Barbara Black, Maxwell Bloomfield, Ruth Colker, Michael Curtis, Robert Dowlut, Kermit Hall, Natalie Hull, Don B. Kates, Jr., Barbara K. Kopytoff, Sanford Levinson, Joyce Lee Malcolm, John Stick, and Robert F. Williams. The authors would also like to acknowledge summer research grants from Boston College Law School, Rutgers (Camden) School of Law, and Tulane University School of Law which contributed to the writing of this paper.